PARDO TO MOXIA, MARCH 2, 1900
[Extract from Spanish. L.S. P.I.R. t 2035.3.]
MARCH 2, 1900.
Sra. AMBROSIA [AMBROSIO MOXIA]
My ESTEEMED AND DEAR SEŅORA: I arrived here at your house on
my trip, without accident, thanks be to God.
Before my departure from the Center I was with Sra. Rosalia Magdalo
[E. Aguinaldo], of whom I asked leave to come here secretly, which was
granted me, a commission being conferred upon me at the same time to
go to Cebu and other provinces of Visayas to make an inspection and to
transmit to proper parties the instructions which the said Seņora gave
me, which I have the honor and great pleasure to make known to you.
They are as follows:
It is agreed to adopt guerrilla tactics in this province, by bands or
sections of ten, fifteen or twenty soldiers, or according to the number of
available troops, under the command of an officer, whose duty it will be
to make hostile demonstrations continually against the enemy, wherever
they may be. For this purpose it would be well to select among the troops
good sharpshooters to form the guerrilla bands, instructing them not to
fire their pieces until within a distance of fifty or forty meters. This
will prevent the men from missing the enemy and will prevent the waste
of ammunition. The scarcity of ammunition and the danger we run in
obtaining it, must be constantly borne in mind, and hence our soldiers
must see to it that their fire should cause many casualties among the
enemy. The guerrillas must always stand in a fight, and must not lie
down, nor kneel on the ground, according to Spanish tactics, as the
Americans aim very low, and when kneeling the bullets strike some in
the head, others in the chest or stomach, and also when lying down they
are shot in the head, while when our men stand they are not struck except
in the feet, calf or leg. These wounds are not mortal, or such as to cause
death. If by chance any of our men are wounded on the field or elsewhere
efforts must be made to take away the rifles and ammunition at once
and carry them away as far as possible, so that they may not be captured
by the enemy; and if the wounded cannot be immediately removed elsewhere
or retreat from the place, let them be left there, because it is
better to save the arms than the men, as there are many Filipino's to
fill up the ranks, but rifles are scarce and difficult to secure for battle;
end besides the Americans, coming upon any wounded, take good care of
them, while the rifles are destroved; therefore, I repeat, they must endeavor
to save the arms rather than the men. For the ambushes our
troops must select advantagoues points near the roads where the enemy
is accustomed to pass, and when the latter are within a distance of about
forty meters, let them discharge four or five shots, one after the other
and then run; but if the Americans come or go in small parties, or fewer
in number than our guerrillas, try and seize them in order to secure
their arms and ammunition, holding the men as prisoners.
The guerrillas quartered in the neighborhood must render mutual
assistance and keep up communication, so as to get the news as to where
the enemy comes or goes, and the time at which they will pass certann
points, endeavoring also to arrange that all the guerrilla bands should
have regular couriers, with you or with general headquarters, giving
advices daily of any occurrenc'e and carrying correspondence. They must
select trustworthy women to carry correspondence, charging them to hide
the letters underneath their skirts, bearing in mind that the Americans
do not search them; and in sending to the towns for arms or food, the
orders must be sent by women and for small quantities, so as not to attract
attention. Officers of guerrillas must use fictitious names or pseudonyms,
as must also their friends too whom they are in the habit of writing in the
towns, Dnd if possible, use a cipher in their letters, so as to prevent the
enemy capturing or learning of them, and discovering by such means the
object or plan of the campaign. Let the greatest economy be observed in
the use of ammuniton and supplies, in view of the times and the condition
of the country.
All these instructions which the Seņora Rosalia has charged me to
transmit to you and to others are bringing forth very happy results everywhere,
in Luzon as well as in Cebu, Negros and Panay; and on many occasions
I have seen in the fields of the provinces of Pampanga, Bulacan
and Manila, and also in Cebu, numerous losses caused the enemy wherever
the guerrillas appeared, because the former, trusting in the strength of
their arms, go along the roads without any care whatever, and through
lack of military discipline they carry their arms in any manner; hence at
the first discharge of musketry on the part of the guerrillas, they are
frightened and run, the dead and wounded being left on the spot. Nevertheless,
you with your fine judgment and the practice acquired during
your long career, will adopt the means which you deem suitable for the
success of your plans.
(News) The American General, MacArthur, with his entire staff,
was taken prisoner by our troops in Northern Luzon. Another American
general died on the 5th of January last in the North, who was seriously
wounded in an ambush or fight. When shot he was a colonel, but on account
of said fight he was promoted to the rank of a general, so that
later when he died, he had the benefit of that rank.
A Yankee colonel of cavalry, and a company belonging to his command,
that went out from Cavite Viejo for the mountains, have not yet
returned, being taken prisoners with their horses by the valiant General
A convoy of the Americans, composed of nine wagons of ammunition and supplies,
guarded by 50 Yankee soldiers, on the road Orani-Bataan,
was surprised by our troops, all effects and men remaining in
their hands; while in Tarlac a half battalion drilling outside the town
was attacked suddenly by our men, and being alarmed some of them
started to run while others were taken prisoners. Our men captured
three hundred rifles. The towns of Novaleta and Imus (you were appointed
local Presidente by these) are again in our hands; the latter
having been retaken by General Castaņeda. This gentleman, when the
Americans took Imus, was appointed local Presidente by them, but instead
of taking the oath, he very patriotically went into the field, and has now
returned to the same town to fight the Americans who wanted to appoint
him to that office. General Belarmino in Albay likewise surprised the
quarters of the Americans in Legaspi, taking all prisoners with their arms
and ammunition. General Paua near Camarines, with his troops overthrew
the Americans in a fight, causing them more than six hundred
casualties. Col. Viniegra is not in Camarines, but has gone in the direction
of Tayabas to join the column of Seņor Trias who is in the neighborhood of Cavite.
The large men-of-war of the Americans which were
anchored in the Bay of Manila, have gone to the China Sea to await orders
from McKinley, where 44 German war vessels have also gone to likewise
await orders from Emperor William, whose relations with the United
States are very strained. Hostilities may break out at any moment. The
Cuban people have risen in arms against the Americans, for which reason
President McKinley wished to raise more recruits for the army, but the
Congress in Washington objected, and four states or provinces, in America
have revolted against McKinley as they do not wish to serve in the army
another year. In view of the above, the President is believed to have ordered
that part of the troops now in the Philippines are to go to Cuba
to fight the Cubans. The news is confirmed that since the first of last
January no war ships coming from America to Manila have brought
troops, but the nine ships that reached that point only brought sacks of
mail and 250 horses. In the Congress at Washington the Democratic party
has presented a proposition to President McKinley, in the following terms:
1st. The Filipinos were invited by the American commanders to help
in the war with Spain, to take from her colonies, liberating the Filipinos
from her clutches, with the promise of conceding their independence:
2nd. The Filipinos kept their promise to our troops, the Americans,
whom they assisted in conquering Spain:
3rd. They say that the Filipinos cannot govern themselves for lack of
Therefore, said Democratic party presented the following resolutions:
1st. The Americans must comply with their promise to grant the independence
of the Philippines, since the Filipinos fulfilled their contract
with the Americans in the war against Spain.
2nd. To prove whether the Filipinos are capable of governing their
country, they will be allowed to govern themselves under an American
protectorate for a period limited to ten years, and in case it is shown in
the futul'e that they cannot continue their own government, America will
again resume the government. During the said ten years the American
goyernment will retain possession of the custom houses in Manila, Iloilo
and Cehti where the duties collected can serve to meet the American expenses;
and in order to satisfy the country, Filipinos will always be
employed in said custom houses, and shall have charge of the receipts in
order to know the sum total of same and the expenses which said protectorate
may occasion. During the said ten years American will send to
the Philippines the war ships needed to guard the coasts but without
interfering in any way in the government and administration of the country,
which are to be under the exclusive control of the Filipinos.
This resolution has already been presented to President McKinley, who
passed it over to a commission appointed by Congress, for definite determination,
and it is said that the commission will report favorably, but with
the addition that the 20 million dollars in gold which America paid to
Spain is to be exacted from the Filipinos, and in case they cannot pay
it at once, they be allowed to pay in installments, with the customs mortgaged
I have learned the news with respect to the proposition of congress
by telegram in cipher from Seņor Agoncillo and other Filipinos who are
in the United States. This was forwarded to the Filipino Committee in
Hong-Hong and sent me by Dr. Santos to Manila, also sent to Seņora
Rosalia on the 27th of December last.
The Philippine Commission in Washington is composed of Seņores
Agoncillo, Rafael del Pan, Riego de Dios, Pedro Roxas, Mariano Ponce,
Antonio Regidor, Galicano Apacible and others, who devote themselves
to agitating the Philippine matter in Congress; all of them are protected
by Mr. Bryan and other prominent men of the American Democracy, who
boldly assure them that the Filipinos shall without fail obtain the in~
dependence which they desire, because in all the states of America the
idea of Philippine independence is gaining numerous voters in its favor.
in one session of said congress there was a skirmish between the members,
because the Democrats held the imperialistic party, presided over by President
McKinley, responsible for the defeat of the Americans in the Philippines,
where nearly forty thousand men have been killed or incapacitated,
and for the expenses of the campaign, which have already reached
more that 200,000,000,00, in gold, while to continue thus will be the ruin
of America in men and money, and this is proven, because the great
capitalists of America have withdrawn their funds from the banks, and
the last soldiers who arrived in Manila, in the middle of December of last
year, were very young men, from 14 to 15 years of age; so that they
already lack men from whom to draw recruits.
In the Congress at Washington there appeared in the aforesaid bill
a severe criticism of McKinley on the part of the Democrats, stating
that the annexation of the Philippines to America was impossible for
lack of men for the army; that in annexing them, barracks and garrisons
would have to be established in every town, with half a millon or more
soldiers; that without doubt the Filipinos would always be hostile, because
the Filipino persists doggedly in the idea of independence for their country;
and America in spite of being a very great nation, cannot recruit
so many soldiers without removing laborers from industrial and commercial
pursuits, by which all these states live, for which reason the
great manufacturers and merchants, not only Democrats but imperialists,
are opposed to annexation, and they propose to grant independence to the
Around Cebu the guerrillas continue holding the Yankees in check.
They cause them numerous losses, having already killed two captains,
three lieutenants and many soldiers. These guerrilla troops were formed
in accordance with instructions which I carried from the Center. The
results are admirable. I was also with our troops, Magsilong and othets
in the mountains to make inspections, and establish the proposed regula.
tions, reports of which I forwarded to the Center. In Negros fighting
is kept up by the guerrillas, or by ambuscades, likewise about Iloilo, Capiz
and Antique. and in accordance with instructions which I sent to the
military commanders by superior order. In Mindanao the Moros have
likewise risen against the Yankees, and very many losses are caused by
the guerrillas, aided by the former convict troops of the Spaniards.
The Russian Government has placed in one of the Chinese ports more
than 300,000 troops awaiting orders, and in the same port 39 war ships - Russian-
are anchored. In Saigon the French have 18 ships of war, and
80,000 troops, also waiting orders. The Germans have at present in the
Carolinas 26 men of war with 40,000 troops, awaiting orders. The
Japanese in Formosa likewise have 15 ships with 26,000 troops. In the
Treaty signed in Paris between Spain and America, the Batanes or Babuyanes
Islands are not included, nor those of Jolo, so that no one has
any right over them, except the Philippine government.
* * * * * * *
The English this time will have, I believe, the same fate as Spain,
as the war they are waging in the Transvaal is resulting in many misfortunes
to them; already more than 30,000 English have been killed, with
three generals, and the other colonies of British-India have risen in arms,
including Borneo; and Manelek, the celebrated opponent of the Italians in
Abyssinia, likewise has declared war in Egypt against England, and the
Irish, with Australia, have also rebelled against England.
All of this news which I have the pleasure of communicating to you
I read partly in the newspapers of Manila, and partly in foreign ones, in
addition to the letters which I have received from the Philippine Commissions
of Hong-Kong, Madrid, Japan, America and other letters from A.
Regidor in London, and therefore the details are true.
In almost every country where newspapers are published the opinion
is unanimous that the Philippines will secure independence, whether America
wills it or not, for the universal consensus of opinion maintains the
right of the Filipinos to have their own government, in accordance with
the liberal ideas of the day.
In Madrid a Philippine paper is published, called "Filipinas ante
Europa" ["The Philippines before Europe"]. Its manager is Don Isabelo
de los Reyes, and its editors, headed by Morayta are Arejola (the
Philippine Castelar as they call him) Rodriguez, de Bogo and other Filipinos.
In Paris also the "Eco de Manila" ["Echo from Manila"] is
published, whose editor and manager is Ramirez of the Puerta del Sol.
In London also the 'Filipino Independent" is published by Regidor, in
Washington "El Derecho Filipino," written by a man from this country
and several Democrats there, and in Italy there is a paper called "Rizal"
whose editor is the brother of him who was killed at Canovas and
in Belgium there is also published another paper entitled "Aguinaldo,"
whose editor and manager are Lichauco and Soriano. All these newspapers
are strong defenders of the Philippine cause. In Manila "La
Patria," "Kapatid nang Bayan" and one other are published: therefore
I am sure, and others too, that they are convinced we shall triumph
over our enemies; and I myself have long been confident that we shall
soon obtain our independence.
Four Americans in Cebu have escaped to Hong-Kong after having
sold their rifles and embarked on the steamer "Nansang."
Everywhere the Americans avail themselves of trickery; throughout
Luzon the Chinese are serving as guides, and some wicked Filipinos,
who believe that the Americans will keep their promises; but they are
mistaken, for they promise and do not pay; accordingly many have been
deceived and have received no pay, after delivering themselves body and
soul, with their arms included.
The generals, with their stations, are as follows: Seņor Trias is
still in the mountains of Cavite; Malvar in those of Batangas and
Tayabas; Kayiles [Cailles] in those of the Laguna and Morong. On the
outskirts of Manila, Seņores Licerio Geronimo and Pio del Pilar are
operating together; about Bulacan, Isidoro Torres; Pampanga and
neighborhood, Mascardo; Ilocos and Pangasinan, Tinio, and about Tarlac
and the neighborhood, Macabulos; in Imus and surrounding country,
Castaņeda; and in Camarines, Albay and Sorsogon, Paua and Belarmino.
With the President are Generals Garcia, Flores and others,
whose names I have not in mind, and civil employees; likewise Pedro
and Maximono Paterno, Ilagan, Alas and others. The government is
still constituted as formerly, with little change in the personnel.
It would be well, in my humble opinion for you to have persons
in your confidence in all the towns where there are American garrisons,
with whom you will be able to communicate directly, to inform you of
the plans of campaign and other business of the enemy, so that having
said information at hand, you may adopt the measures you deem best.
These persons may be considered as diplomatic representatives of yourself;
therefore, they can show a thousand faces in order to win the
friendsl1ip of the enemy, with whom they can always maintain intimate
relations, appearing more American than the Americans themselves.
To accomplish this there is need likewise for persons to carry dispatches,
and women should be selected for this, if possible, as is done
in Manila, Cavite, Cebu and other points, as these of the weaker sex
receive more considel'atioll than men, and their mission is less notice.
It would be well also, according to my humble opinion, for the
guerrillas to always be outside the towns and in the roads or outskirts
of one town or another, to watch the movements of the enemy and attack
them unexpectedly. The Bolomen also should go "El Gapang"
[creeping like a snake] about Manila and Cebu, devoting themselves to
killing enemies in the gates of the towns, when they are going about
personal business and do not carry firearms; as, for instance, when
going to bathe, to gather bananas and cocoanuts and other articles, as
such parties are easy to assassinate.
It would also be well, in my humble oplluon, for you to find out
from the old men and quack doctors the kind of poison that can be mixed
in alcoholic drinks and in cocoanut wine (tuba), as our enemies now
drink these liquors; and after this poison 11as been known and tried,
let it be used in such a way as to undermine the constitution of the
man, until some day death occurs; for which purpose you ought to
have persons, wherever there are Americans, to poison them. These
things are now being done in Luzon, Cebu, and Panay.
There is a tree here in the province whose leaves inflame the
body of a man considerably, once applied; for I have seen about Manila
the leaves converted into powder, rolled in pellets of paper and shot
in the faces of Americans. This causes the parts to swell and become
completely useless; and I believe it would be well to do this to them
within the towns, and especially to the drunkards asleep along the roads
and to the fellows making love.
From Cebu I have already written several letters to Seņora Rosalia,
telling her all the news of the Visayas, especially those of this
province; and in those letters I praised your courageous conduct when
the Americans arrived, stating that Captain Chinchilla with another of
the same rank, Seņor Villena, bearing very important dispatches from
you, fought as true heroes and caused very many losses to the enemy,
and I even recommended his promotion to higher rank. I also learned,
and so informed Seņora Rosalia, that in the fight ordered by you near
Palo or Alang-alang, of the two American companies only six men
returned to Tac1oban, and the others went to the place of everlasting
fire. In like manner I communicated to said lady that you have eight
American prisoners with you, who, while going to Surigao to operate
a gold mine, and having stopped on one of the shores of this province,
were captured by our troops after obstinate resistance on their part,
as they carried firearms.
After a few days, which I shall spend with my husband and family,
from whom I have been absent for more than a year, I shall have
the pleasure of going to put myself under your commands, begging you
to forgive me for not doing it now, for the reason stated, and also my
health renders it impossible.
My family are very grateful to you, as well as myself, for the
attentions you paid them while they were in that town, honoring them
with a visit, for which I take pleasure in returning a million thanks.
My friend, Melecia, has already sent me the money of which I spoke
to you in one of the letters written from Manila, which by my order
was paid into the Treasury of the Center to your account, and for
which amount, I have issued the proper receipts, directing at the same
time that you be notified. Said sum of money I have here at your
disposal, which you can call for when you wish it, as the common interests
of my beloved country are superior to my private ones, and for
her liberty I am sacrificing and will sacrifice my life and that of my
family, and my entire fortune.
I have correspondents located in Cebu anel Manila, by order of
Seņora Rosalia, with whom I am in constant communication, and to
whom I send my letters for said Seņora, and receive answers from her.
Said correspondents have no other duties than to inform the Center of
the military and political condition of the provinces and Manila, and
the member who is now in said capital relieved me of the delicate and
difficult office which I was discharging as diplomatic and special
commissioner of the Center in Manila, therefore, if you have any communications
for the Center, or official documents, you may send them
to me here and I will take charge of them, sending them to the Center
by persons in our confidience and paid by the central government,
where they will arrive in a few days and by way of Cebu. I have the
pleasure also of telling you that I can receive here money and drafts
on the Treasury of the Center, as I have secret correspondents in Cebu
and Manila with business houses, accredited by Seņora Rosalia. Likewise,
if you and your men with you have any messages for Manila, Visayas
or Cebu, and Panay, Hong-Kong, Japan, France, Madrid and other
countries, they may deal with me, because we already have correspondents
in said countries and others of the known world, from whom I will
order what they wish, and in a short time same will be forwarded
My friend Melecia has two hundred pesos which were collected and
deposited in his hands; and this also is at your disposal.
I offer you the most sincere con~ratulations for the able selection
which you made in favor of Seņora Melecia to take the important
part which she fills in these towns of your jurisdiction, and in addition
give you thanks, as I know that she is very worthy and capable
of undertaking said duty, to-day better than ever, through her acknowledged
diplomatic ability. * * *
(Signed) PAULA PARDO.