Exhibit 1343.

[Original in Spanish. D. S. P. I. R., 928.5 ]

FEBRUARY 1, 1901.

VICENTE LUKBAN Y RILLES, Politico-Military Governor of this Province of Samar, Brigadier General of the Filipino Army and General-in-chief of Operations of said province.


This Politico-Military Government is highly satisfied with the patriotism of the inhabitants of this province, who, in spite of the threats of the proclamation issued by the so-called Military Governor of the Philippine Islands, dated December 20th of the year just ended, remain firm in their indestructible union and in their purposes to defend the country and to sacrifice their own lives on the altars of the same; by reason thereof, and placing my trust in your assistance and protection, worthy and patriotic Samaranians, it is my duty to inform you that said proclamation, laying aside all kind of considerations for the Filipinos in arms, speak of us as insurgents, which is inconceivable, since we only defend our own right, which is liberty, the first right which the Supreme Being bestowed on man on creating him. If all men are destined to be free and independent, no one, therefore, must trample upon such a right, which belongs to all peoples, especially when the latter is already endowed with culture sufficient to enter into the concert of civilized nations.

The law, being just, does not punish those who solely act in accordance with it and for their own rights; and as the spirit of ssid proclamation is diametrically opposed to the aspirations of a people who struggle for their independence, it should be rejected by all Filipinos who boast of dignity or of shame.

It can not be said that in defending this right we infringe the laws of war and we proceed like inhuman beings; no; up to the present time there has been no record, in this province or in any place where our consecrated flag waves, of any barbarity or inhumanity whatever, but rather on the contrary, we proceed in accordance with said laws, demonstrating to the world that the time has now come for the Philippines to be recognized as capable of governing themselves.

Existing as there does, an International Code which mitigates and prevents the barbarous consequences of war, the fact that the North American Imperialism caused the outbreak of hostilities without a wellfounded reason with a weak nation, for which it made itself protector at one time, when it yet needed its assistance, is well known by everybody to be a violation by the same Imperialism of that law; and consequently it cannot be said that it is a violation of the same by the Fiilpino Army. It is but logical. that, as the Philippines is being trampled upon by the power of that great North American nation, it should avail itself of a thousand ways in order to defend itself, ways which are in no manner whatever flagrant violations of American interests or of the laws of war, because if they were, granades, bombardments, and other elements of war which the enemy's power uses in order to defeat us would also be the same.

Who is not aware that the acts of the enemy in capturing small vessels and setting them on fire at sea with all their cargoes, endangering the lives of the owners, who being purely neutral, devote themselves solely to their small business without making or committing any kind of contraband, are contrary to humanity? Can fishermen, perchance, be prevented from following their calling, the only one which they have for earning a livelihood, when these men commit no act contrary to the laws of war? Is it not contrary to humanity to shoot defenseless persons, set pueblos on fire and to loot and rob the houses of some peaceful inhabitants? Are not the acts of the enemy, in throwing persons, perhaps innocent ones, tied up in sacks, into the water, which are once in a while picked up on our shores, barbarous ones? If they are, why then are these acts recorded of the American forces in all their operations throughout this province? If, owing to the fact that we Filipinos defend our own rights, we are considered to be insurgents and traitors, then the one having the best guns, war ships, and armament would be considered just and right, and we who do not have them yet are lacking in that; in such a case a law that brings the civilized world into harmony and order should not exist; which proves that the intent of the proclamation of which we speak, is, in the full meaning of the world, to enslave us, and that protection for the Filipinos who submit to their sovereignty is only a trick in order to exterminate us without any consideration whatever. Do not, therefore, allow yourselves to be deceived, beloved compatriots; be on the alert and expel the invader.

We only fight to defend our own rights; we do not want war, on the contrary, we desire peace; but a worthy and honorable peace for our country, for which purpose our most worthy President, Emilio Aguinaldo is fully empowered, and is vested with the aspirations of the Filipino people; but we are convinced that while the invaders remain in the country, peace will never reign, as time, and the continued firing which constantly and daily develops in all the provinces of the Archipelago, has shown; hence there arises the inevitable duty imposed upon all Filipinos to cooperate in the present campaign, for as soon as the enemy leaves the Islands, that longed for peace will be seen, a true and stable peace which will not stain Ottr hearts, because it will be based on independence.

In virtue thereof, all Filipinos, I should say inhabitants of Samar, who shall obey and shall submit to said proclamation, and therefore to the American sovereignty, should not and cannot enjoy any consideration within Filipino territory, for such a proceeding should in no way be tolerated, as it causes most serious prejudice to the Holy Cause which we defend. In order that no one shall plead ignorance, before the strong measures are taken, this Politico-Military Government, availing itself of the most ample powers vested in it, has seen fit, on this date, to issue an edict, which hereby

Orders and directs that:

The following will be subject to the military law of the Filipino Army, tried by summary court martial, and, upon conviction, shot as traitors to the country.

1st. Those who, being either military or civilians, be their nationality what it may, shall leave our camps for the purpose of going over to the enemy in order to inform him of the state of our forces or of the details of the plans of the ground occupied by our army.

2nd. Also those who, being in the camp of the enemy, shall leave it for the pueblos, visitas or barrios of the province in order to purchase food and in order to sell it to the enemy; or, for the purpose of securing information about our forces, in order to furnish it to the enemy, and who, while seemingly neutral, are in reality but working for their own private interests, should favor the enemy to the detriment of the country.

3rd. Those who, being in our camps, should have or maintain correspondence with suspicious persons in the camp of the enemy.

4th. Those Filipinos who, having been in our camps, should pass over to the enemy's without prior permission from this Government.

5th. All Filipinos, inhabitants of this province, who shall comply with the obligations which the country requires, shall be protected by this Government.

6th. Repeating my former edicts, all foreigners who shall remain neutral shall be protected, and the Field and Line Officers who are operating in this province of my command, and the Local Presidentes of the same, shall proceed to the capture of the enemy's spies, malefactors and evildoers, sending them to me for proper action in accordance with law, and they shall constantly require exact compliance with this edict.

Make a record of this in the Colonel's Headquarters in order that it may be communicated to the Field and Line Officers of operations, and let it be referred to all the pueblos of the province for general information and for exact compliance thereof.

Given in the General Headquarters of Matuguinaw, Feb. 1, 1901.

Politico-Military Governor.

(Stamp): Politico-Military Government. Samar.

A record made and numbered 54 in these the Colonel's Headquarters.


(Stamp): Samar Regiment. Colonel's Headquarters.