MILLER TO LOPEZ, JANUARY 11, 1899 (FIRST LETTER)
HEADQUARTERS FIRST SEPARATE BRIGADE, EIGHTH
ON BOARD THE TRANSPORT NEWPORT.
Iloilo Harbor, P. I., January 11, 1899.
Mr. R. Lopez,
President Federal State of Bisayas.
I have the honor and pleasure to acknowledge receipt of your communication of January 9, and regret very much your final conclusion does not conform to the order of the President of the United States, which announces sovereignty over all these islands. You must rest assured in the end that the sovereignty will be maintained, whatever obstructions may temporarily intervene. The President is very desirous for the people of the Philippine Islands to accept the authority of the United States as friends, and without compulsion. You asked me in your letter to tell you, in sincerity, why
your people should acknowledge authority of the United States now, rather than the authority of your Central Government. The President's order tells why you should acknowledge the authority of the United States; that is because of the Treaty of Paris, December 10, 1898. The United States, in naval and land battles, in Cuba, Porto Rico and Manila, compelled Spain to relinquish authority over the Philippine Islands to the United States. To this end she expended millions of dollars and thousands of lives, causing first the adoption of the Protocol and finally the Treaty. Every nation in the world recognizes the Treaty as giving to the United States the same rights in the Philippine Islands as Spain formerly possessed. These rights of our government were duly considered at Washington prior to the President issuing his Order, and, no doubt, on the best legal advice in accordance witli international law. I might say that the Confederation of which you claim to be a part is not now acknowledged by any nation, and its existence is only accidental as a result of the war between Spain and the United States.
(Signed) M. P. MILLER,
Brigadier General, U. S. Volunteers,